Depression also known as Depressive disorder is a mood disorder that causes distressing symptoms which affect how you feel, think, and handle daily activities, such as sleeping, eating or working.
Depression was initially called “melancholia”. The first historical understanding of depression was thus that depression was a spiritual (or mental) illness rather than a physical one.
In contrast, depression was both a biological and psychological disease. Gymnastics, massage, special diets, music and songs were used to alleviate depressive symptoms in ancient days.
Based on the AnatomyofMelancholy, the psychological and social causes of depression are poverty, fear and solitude.
Depression is prevalent among all age groups, in almost all walks of life.
Prior episode of depression.
Major life stressor (loss of loved one or other members of social network.
Lack of social support
History of adverse childhood events.
Negative cognitive style.
Depression can be a part of several mental health problems such as:
*Borderline personality disorder.
and other personality disorders.
Types of Depression
Perinatal depression is defined as depression in pregnancy, around childbirth or within the first year post‐partum. It is a significant problem in households around the world and often occurs with other medical or mental health illnesses (such as pain conditions or anxiety) affecting all members of the family while too often escaping detection and treatment.
Perinatal depression bears negative medical and psychological outcomes for both mother and child.
Women with perinatal depression experience full-blown major depression during pregnancy or after delivery (postpartum depression).
* Postpartum depression (PPD) is a condition that describes a range of physical and emotional changes that majority of mothers can have after having a baby. PPD can be treated with medication and counseling.
Postpartum depression (PPD) is a complex mix of physical, emotional, and behavioral changes that happen in a woman after giving birth.
Postpartum depression is linked to chemical, social, and psychological changes associated with having a baby. The term describes a range of physical and emotional changes that many new mothers experience. The good news is postpartum depression can be treated with medication and counseling.
* Major depression having symptoms of depression most of the day, nearly every day for at least 2 weeks that interfere with your ability to work, sleep, study, eat, and enjoy life. An episode can occur only once in a person’s lifetime, but more often, a person has several episodes.
* Persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia) having symptoms of depression that last for at least 2 years. A person diagnosed with this form of depression may have experience of major depression along with periods of less severe symptoms.
*Psychotic Depression: This type of depression occurs when a person has severe depression plus some form of psychosis, such as having disturbing false fixed beliefs (delusions) or hearing or seeing upsetting things that others cannot hear or see (hallucinations).
*Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD): SAD is a type of depression that comes and goes with the seasons, typically starting in the late fall and early winter and going away during the spring and summer.
Causes Of Depression
-Alcohol or drug abuse .
-Certain medical conditions, including thyroid, cancer, or long term pain.
-Certain medications such as steroids.
-Stressful life events, such as:Breaking up with a boyfriend or girlfriend.
-Failing a class.
-Death or illness of someone close to you.
-Childhood abuse or neglect.
-Social isolation (common in in adults)
Signs and symptoms of depression
*Thoughts of death or suicide or suicide attempts.
*Restlessness or irritability
*Aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems without a clear physical cause and/or that do not ease even with treatment.
*Decreased energy, fatigue, or being “slowed down”Difficulty.
*Concentrating, remembering, or making decision.
*Difficulty in sleeping, early-morning awakening, or oversleeping
*Appetite and/or weight change.
*Persistent sad, anxious, or “empty” mood.
*Feelings of hopelessness or pessimism.
*Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, or helplessness.
*Loss of interest or pleasure in hobbies or activities.
Treatment of depression
Different types of depression require different treatment.
Mild symptoms may be treated by the procedures below:
* Learning about the condition.
* Lifestyle changes (such as regular physical exercise) .
* Psychological therapy can provided by a mental health professional or through e-therapist (online therapist).
For moderate to more severe depression, medical treatments are to be required, along side these other treatments.
Follow this approach below:
* See your doctor. Book an extended consultation to give you time to discuss your symptoms and treatment .
* See your local community health centre.
* Speak to someone at your local council for contact details
* Speak to your local mental health service – they can give you advice about your closest major hospital so you could get assistances from psychiatric department with staff available for mental health assessments.
Psychological treatments for depression
There are several different types of psychological treatments including:
* Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT).
* Interpersonal therapy (IPT).
* Behaviour therapy.
* Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT).
This is the main medical treatment for depression.
Antidepressant medication may be administered along with psychological treatments, in the case of moderate to severe cases of depressions.
People with more cases of severe forms of depression (bipolar disorder and psychosis) generally need to be treated with medication. This may include one or a combination of mood stabilisers, antipsychotic drugs and antidepressants.