Dyslexia is a language-based learning disability. It is a specific neurological learning disorder which is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition . Majority of times, it comes with poor spelling and decoding abilities. And these are as a result of deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Further consequences also includes problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede the growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.
Dyslexia involves all the symptoms, which result in people having difficulties with specific language skills, especially reading. Children with dyslexia usually experience difficulties spelling, writing, and pronouncing words.
Individuals who have Dyslexia experience it throughout their lives; Although its effects can change at different phases in a person’s life. Dyslexia can make it very difficult for a child to succeed academically in the typical instructional environment, and in its more severe forms, it can qualify a student for special education, special accommodations, and/ or extra support services.
Some times, most parents think that Dyslexia is just lack of motivations or inadequate instructional/environmental opportunities or other limiting conditions.
Dyslexia is different from Attention Deficiency Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and Attention Deficiency Disorder (ADD). However , the frequently coexist, therefore it is advisable to test for both separately.
Early detection is necessary, if not ,.the person is misunderstood, beaten , or called different names by people around him or her.
Facts About Dyslexia
* Dyslexia is difficulty in learning to read.
* Diagnosis of dyslexia involves reviewing the child’s processing of information from seeing, hearing , and participating in activities.
* Dyslexia can be related to hereditary factors or other factors that affect brain development.
* The precise cause of dyslexia is not fully understood.
* Treatment of dyslexia ideally involves planning between the parent(s) and the teachers.
SIGNS OF DYSLEXIA
* Inability to write legibly.
* Inability to comprehend a piece of work when read.
* Taking too long in assignments and home works and other academic work.
* Speech delay
* Inability to read at a particular age when compared to age mates.
* delay in carrying out a particular task.
CHALLENGES AMONG THOSE LIVING WITH DYSLEXIA
The knowledge of Dyslexia is not common in our environment, as a result, they are called names, bullied and beating.
They develop an inferiority complex issue.
They are afraid of trying out any new thing.
Some of them drop out of school.
General problems experienced by people with dyslexia include the following:
Learning to speak
Learning letters and their sounds
Organizing written and spoken language
Memorizing number facts
Reading quickly enough to comprehend
Keeping up with and comprehending longer reading assignments
Learning a foreign language
Some specific signs for elementary aged children may include:
* Difficulty with remembering simple sequences such as counting from one to twenty , naming the days of the week, or
reciting the English alphabets.
* Difficulty understanding the rhyming of words, such as knowing that fat rhymes .
* Trouble recognizing words that begin with the same sound (for example, that ball, boy”, and bag all start with the letter “B”.
* Learning to speak
* Learning letters and their sounds
* Organizing written and spoken language
*Memorizing number fast.
* Reading quickly enough to understand.
* Keeping up with and comprehending longer reading assignments
* Learning a foreign language
Difficulty in pronunciations.
Effects of Dyslexia on individuals
Stress and anxiety :
These increase when you are in situations over which you can not control. All people, young and old, can experience overwhelming stress and exhibit signs of anxiety, but children, adolescents, and adults with dyslexia are particularly vulnerable. That’s because many individuals do not fully understand the nature of their learning disability, and as a result, tend to blame themselves for their own difficulties.
Years of identity crisis may erode a person’s self-esteem, making them less able to tolerate the challenges of school, work, or social interactions and more stressed and anxious. Many individuals with dyslexia have experienced years of frustration and limited success, despite countless hours spent in special programs or working with specialists.
Their progress may have been agonizingly slow and frustrating, rendering them emotionally fragile and vulnerable. Some have been subjected to excessive pressure to succeed (or excel) without the proper support or training.
Depression is also a frequent complication in dyslexia. Depressed children and adolescents often have different
symptoms than do depressed adults. The depressed child is unlikely to be lethargic or to talk about feeling sad. Instead
he or she may become more active or misbehave to cover up the painful feelings. In the case of masked depression,
the child may not seem obviously unhappy.
Characteristics of children and adults who are depressed
* They tend to have negative thoughts about themselves, that is, a negative self- image.
* They tend to view the world negatively.
They are less likely to enjoy the positive experiences in life. This
makes it difficult for them to have fun.
* Most depressed youngsters have great trouble imagining anything positive about the future.
The depressed child with dyslexia not only experiences great pain in his present experiences, but also foresees
a life of continuing failure.
How to help
Children are more successful when early in their lives someone has been extremely :
*Listening to children’s feelings.
*Rewarding their little efforts.
Anxiety, anger and depression can be daily companions for children with
dyslexia. However, their language problems often make it difficult for them to express their feelings.
Therefore, adults must help them talk about their feelings.